Energy is in constant need and there is a shortage of energy in countries like India. There are 2 forms of energy; they are renewable energy forms and non-renewable energy sources. Renewable energy is one that can be replaced by nature and there is no shortage of energy. For example- Geothermal such as heat from the earth’s core, tidal waves, wind, biogas, and solar energy. The non-renewable are the ones that cannot be replaced or they are exhaustible such as petroleum and nuclear etc. That is these will get exhausted and are irreplaceable. In this article, we will discuss one of the renewable energy sources such as biogas.
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History of Gobar gas or Biogas
The gobar gas is in use for thousands of years in Europe and Asia in countries like India, China, and other European countries such as Greece and the UK for heating and cooking purposes. There have been inscriptions found in the Harappa and Indus valley civilization the use of animal waste for cooking and heating. It is also found in the scriptures in the early Mesopotamian civilization. However, the technology and science of using the gobar gas information and its use have come a long way since the early use. Today’s gobar gas plants are very efficient and can be used easily in rural areas and home use.
What is gobar gas?
Gobar gas is called as Biogas. The meaning of gobar is cow dung. As the name describes the main component of the gobar gas is methane gas produced from organic materials such as cow dung, dead leaves, dead remains of animals and plants, etc. It is used for cooking, heating, and electricity generation purposes.
It is a natural and sustainable organic gas produced in closed containers. This is one of the energies that is produced in a renewable way. The process of fermentation occurs when the cow dung and other organic materials are stored in closed containers that produce methane gas used for lighting, cooking, and producing electricity.
It is neutral to CO2 and produced in large quantities in rural areas where the cow dung is available. It consists of 60% methane gas and 40% Co2 gas.
The gobar gas is produced by anaerobic fermentation of the biodegradable biowastes such as manure, sewage, municipal waste, green waste, plant materials, and crops. This gas is then purified by the upgrading process. This purified gas is then used in motor gas fuel and running massive turbines. This off-grid electric power is then used to supply power for lighting and cooking needs in homes.
Advantages of Gobar gas
There is a desperate fuel shortage in India due to the increase in population. Three fourth of the country’s annual billion tons of manure is used for producing methane that is needed in cooking and heating.
- It is natural
- Less amount of co2 gas is released to the atmosphere
- It is organic and requires plants and animals wastes
- It is renewable energy that is it can be used continuously and can be replaced in nature once used
How to make gobar gas plant at home
The Biogas plant can be made at home or in any rural area.
It requires an inlet and latrine where the organic animals and plants waster is dropped to the bottom of the digester. The digester is the enclosed container that has biowaste. Above this, the gas is collected and stored under certain required natural pressure. The output and extra wastes from the digester come out in the form of bio-slurry and then used as manure for plants.
The temperature maintained is from 30 degrees Celsius to 40 degree Celsius inside the chamber there is no extra heating required and only room temperature is enough. The methane gas is produced by anaerobic fermentation that occurs with the help of microbes such as bacteria.
The pipe from the top of the gas chamber carries the gas for heating and cooling in homes.
With the development in technology and science and also in the world of depleting resources for energy, gobar gas can be used as a sustainable, eco-friendly, safer, and greener energy option in the world.
In this article, we have discussed what is gobar gas or biogas and how it is produced in large quantities for various purposes such as lighting, cooking, heating, and automobiles. Considering the shortage of energy in India and the rising cost of the energy gobar gas can be used at homes and can be used efficiently in many homes in rural areas.
It is found that 1 kg of animals and plant wastes can be used to produce gas for home needs in urban areas. In rural areas, it is found that the gobar gas plants can be successfully used for the energy needs of entire rural communities.