Table of Contents
- 1 Proper guide for green chili cultivation
- 2 Ideal conditions for green chili cultivation
- 3 Land preparation for green chili cultivation
- 4 Varieties of green chili cultivation
- 5 Sowing methods of green chili cultivation
- 6 Steps for chili seeds sowing methods
- 7 Pest management and harvesting in green chili cultivation
- 8 Harvesting
- 9 Conclusion
Proper guide for green chili cultivation
Chili is known for the pungent smell and spicy taste. It is added to the food to make the food spicy. India is number one in chili production in the world followed by China, Peru, Spain, and Mexico. The larger chili is called bell peppers and is used as a vegetable for various dishes. One of the spiciest varieties that are pungent in taste, color, and smell is the Guntur chili. Chili is used all over India and has a variety of names such as Mirchi, Lanka, etc.
Ideal conditions for green chili cultivation
pH requirements –
The soil must have a pH of 6.5 and 7.5 which is a neutral soil. It cannot tolerate alkaline or acidic soil.
Climatic Conditions –
Chili production requires warm, humid, and later stages of development a dry temperature. It is a tropical and subtropical plant. The temperature for chili production is between 20 degrees Celsius to 25 degrees Celsius. More than 37 degrees Celsius the chili crop is affected and does not grow properly. Chili production is also affected if there is heavy rainfall the crop starts getting rotten. If there is low moisture during the fruiting period affects the bud and the bud does not grow properly and thus the flower and fruit may drop off. With high temperature and low humidity level would lead to deflowering and affects the fruits also.
It can be grown from May to June as Kharif crop, and September to October as Rabi crops. If you want to grow in summer then January and February months are required.
Chili are grown with the help of seeds, choose the good quality and disease-free seeds. The high yielding and disease resistant seeds are being developed by various organizations and research institutes.
Water requirement –
Only sufficient water must be used, too much water and stagnated water makes the chili rotten. Do not do water frequently, only when leaves droop down it indicates the requirement of water.
Land preparation for green chili cultivation
Soil preparation –
This plant needs sufficient moisture to grow. The ideal soil for the chili growth is black soil which retains moisture when developed as rainfed crops. When irrigated with water the crops need rich organic contents with well-drained sandy foam. They are grown in delta regions. And in Uttarakhand, the soil is mixed with gravel and coarse sand.
Varieties of green chili cultivation
1. Bhagya Lakshmi Chili types
High tolerant towards pests and diseases
Grown in parts of Andhra Pradesh
It is also called a G-4 variety
Initially in olive green in color later turns dark red
2. Jwala Chili type
Grown in Gujarat
The highly pungent taste and red
Harvested between September to December
Very small in size
3. TNAU Hybrid Chili Co1
Cultivated in parts of Tamil Nadu and Coimbatore
Are very long as 12 cm
Resistant to fruit rot
High yield of up to 11 tons per acre and 2 tons of dry pod per acre.
Light green in color and becomes dark red
Can be harvested within 200 days of plantation
4. Kanthari Chili type
Fruits are small with a high pungent taste
Grown in Kerala and Tamil Nadu
Grown in all season
Developed from Assam type B72A types
Rain-fed cultivation is suitable
Tall plants with fruits spread out
Yields about 700kg of fruits per acre
Medium-sized chili with bulging base
Glossy looks on chili but dull tips
Used mostly to make pickles using buttermilk
Is developed in Kandangadu
Yields 7 tons per acre with 210 days of plantation
7. Kashmiri Chili type
Grown in Jammu and Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh
Long and deep red
They are harvested in November and February
Sowing methods of green chili cultivation
Steps for chili seeds sowing methods
- Seeds are taken in a seedling tray with medium-sized cells and drainage holes at the bottom.
- Fill the cups with the moist coco-peat medium
- Select the chili seeds and sow them with 2 to 3 seeds per cup. Ensure they are not sown deeply.
- Sowing Technique – Use seeds on the surface of the medium and push it a little further down so that it is closed by the coco-peat with the help of a pencil.
- Now ensure you keep the seedling tray indoors till the seeds germinate into small plants.
- Keep the seed trays in a box or cover this with the paper for 1 week to make the faster germinating process.
- Watering – Water the cups with 2 tablespoons of water also ensure the extra water drops out of the drainage holes.
- Use the well sieved fine soil as a sowing medium and make a raised bed from it, cover the bed with the roof of a plastic sheet. Water it gently in the forms of light showers
Pest management and harvesting in green chili cultivation
The major pests of chili farming are pod borers, nematodes, mites, aphids, grubs, and thrips, etc. Steps to prevent pests from the plants are as follows,
- Apply well-rotted manure
- Intercropping with onions
- 100 kg of neem cakes prevents grubs
- Neem Seed Kernel Extract is applied for controlling mites and trips
- Deploying Pheromone traps helps against fruit borers
Chilis are used as vegetables, to prepare pickles, and to prepare spices. Red fruits chilies are plucked 5 to 6 times and green chilies are plucked around 8 to 10 times
We have seen in this article about chili farming which is done widely in India across the country. Chilis are even exported to the international market from India and are also used widely by local people in India. As we have discussed if properly grown the chili can be cultivated around the year and around 7 tons per acre in the season. This crop can be grown throughout the year if cultivated with the right methods. Happy Farming!!!